The European Union: 4 Essays for a more inclusive Europe

This “Denkwerkstatt Europa” is a call for paper developed by foraus. The goal was to collect ideas among young experts in European affairs and, subsequently, to help them upgrading their ideas into full policy proposals within a think tank paper. Faced with series of crisis, not least the departure of the UK and the rise of populism in countries such as Hungary, Poland and Italy, the EU currently stands at a crossroad. There is a need to re-energize the European integration project and, importantly, to make it more legitimate in the eyes of the EU citizens. With the upcoming European elections of 2019, it is time for think tanks and member of the civil society to think outside the box and present some new ideas to EU decision makers.

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The following contributions contain proposals that address the issue of the democratic deficit of the EU. Combining their experience and different perspectives as European citizens, the authors of the following papers went through a long process of reflection. Eventually, they elaborated several original proposals to reduce the democratic deficit. Far from adopting a utopian perspective, the authors provide us with practicable solutions that would not necessitate any treaty change and that could be easily put into place if decided. The last paper reflects upon another subject: EU defence. In the current context, French and the German leaders make pleas for the constitution of a European army and thus, the topic is very timely. Adopting once again a pragmatic perspective, the author reflects upon what can be seen as the necessary condition to see the emergence of a European army one day in the future: the constitution of an EU defence industry.


Darius Farman

Darius Farman is co-head of the foraus Europe programme. He is a graduate of the ETH Zurich and the College of Europe. His research focuses on Swiss-EU relations, free movement of persons and EU agencies.


Cenni Najy

Cenni Najy is a researcher at the University of Geneva and head of the Europe Programme at foraus. His research focuses on Swiss-EU relations and on the EU’s external governance.


Pauline Westerbarkey

Pauline holds a bachelor’s degree in Political Science from Sciences Po with a focus on EU relations, and a master’s degree in International Affairs from the Graduate Institute Geneva, where she has notably concentrated on gender and peace studies. Her current projects include research on women in non-state armed groups.


Moritz Neubert

After completing the Undergraduate Program in International Affairs at the University of St. Gallen, Moritz continued to study this subject on the graduate level at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (IHEID). Specialising in Conflict and Peace Building, the Master Thesis focused on the field of mediation and inquired whether diverging positions of member states can have beneficial effects on the EU’s foreign policy activities. Upon completion of the Master Studies at IHEID, Moritz will be contributing as a research assistant and doctoral student to the project “Fighting together, moving apart? European common defence and shared security in an age of Brexit and Trump”, primarily located at the University of Mannheim (Germany).


Fanny Randanne

Fanny Randanne holds a BA and a MA in Law from the University of Fribourg/University of Auvergne, and a MSc in International Relations from the University of Geneva. She worked as an intern at the Institute for Strategic Research (IRSEM) and as a project officer at the French Ministry of Defence (EMA). Her research focuses on European defence cooperation, on arms trade flows, and on nation-state sovereignty.


Federico Cecchetti

Federico holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Political Science from the University of Siena and a Master’s Degree in International Affairs from the Graduate Institute of Geneva (IHEID), where he specialised in international security and energy politics. His Master’s thesis analysed the repercussions of the US shale gas revolution on the global geopolitics related to gas trade. With prior work experience at the European Parliament, he is currently researching at the Dutch think-tank Clingendael International Energy Programme, focusing on the EU energy transition.


Alexander Mäkelä

Alexander Mäkelä is a public policy professional working within the tech industry. With a background in European Public Policy Analysis, Alexander’s research and published work has focused on innovative SMEs, public procurement of innovation, and European industrial strategies.